Biofilm streamers and the drag of biological flexible structures in flow

In nature, biological systems such as biofilms exhibit a streamlined form exposed to harsh changing environments. Also, these structures have an interesting structure in common. They have a base attached to the substratum and a tail that flaps in the flow. These two characteristics: streamlined shape and flapping tail behavior have been the focus of my recent study (Taherzadeh et al., 2009).